on is based on the fact that each strand serves as a template double helix to assemble new molecules.
We now know that DNA is the carrier of the code that controls the chemistry of all living things (see the central dogma of molecular biology ) , and the double helix of DNA has become one of the most famous scientific symbols . The discovery of DNA , like almost all great discoveries , was not the result of a lone genius , and the culmination of a long chain of experimental work.
Pleurisy – information about the disease and treatment
Pleurisy – an inflammation of the pleura with the formation of fibrinous deposits on its surface or in its cavity effusion. Always secondary, or the syndrome is a complication of many diseases, but in a certain period can be extended in the clinical picture in the foreground, masking the underlying disease. The etiology and pathogenesis.
Jaundice: causes, diagnosis, treatment
Jaundice – a symptom that accompanies some diseases of the liver, biliary tract and blood. Jaundice is a yellowing of the skin of the body, sclera (whites) of eyes and mucous membranes of the mouth, which is due to an increase in blood levels of yellow pigment – bilirubin. Depending on the cause of jaundice distinguish three types: on the hepatic (at elevated bilirubin), liver (in violation of processing bilirubin) and obstructive (in violation of separation of bilirubin in the bile). Only a doctor based on specific research methods can find out the true cause of the jaundice. Jaundice Treatment depends on the cause of the increased levels of bilirubin in the blood.
Jaundice – yellow staining of the mucous membranes, sclera and skin, caused by the deposition of bile pigments in the tissue that forms in the liver – bilirubin (bile). The reason for any kind of jaundice is an imbalance between the formation and release of bilirubin.
A series of articles on the book “MANAGING YOUR HEADACHES”.
This book was written to provide you, the patient, with the information you need to better manage your headaches. Understanding the causes and triggers of headache and the range of treatment options will help you make more informed and effective decisions regarding your care.
Migraine - What to Expect
As we have emphasized at multiple points thus far in this book, migraine is a disorder that can be controlled—but not cured—and its clinical course is highly variable. While many exceptions occur, migraine tends to subside as we age. Female migraineurs frequently experience worsening of their headache syndrome prior to and during early menopause but then enjoy lessening or even termination of migraine as more years pass. Even so, this course is far from inevitable; even if your sisters, your mother, and your mother’s mother all miraculously ceased having migraine following menopause, this does not ensure you will duplicate their experience. Migraine is by no means a justifiable indication for performing a hysterectomy/bilateral oophorectomy (removal of uterus and ovaries).
Courses of effective prophylactic therapy should help improve the natural history of your migraine by smoothing out those rough spots wherein you otherwise would suffer frequent or chronic headache. Effective abortive therapy should enable you to minimize the time you spend disabled due to a migraine attack or the side effects of any medication taken. It is our hope that for you, the individual reader and headache sufferer, the knowledge you gain from this book will lead you to a better understanding of your disorder and its appropriate treatment. Thus empowered and working in tandem with your physician, you may become your own best ally in managing your headaches.
Your Visit to the Doctor
Your initial visit with the doctor represents a crucial step towards securing effective control over your headaches.
Even though your headaches may have driven you to the depths of desperation, despair, and neediness, never forget that the management process involves a transaction between two parties that will require your active participation. The physician is not your savior; ideally he or she will serve as a compassionate, informed consultant who will advise you how best to direct your own ongoing headache management. Get this process off on the right foot. In this chapter we will offer suggestions as to how to maximize the benefits obtained from your initial visit. Although headache is endemic in our society and headache sufferers fill the waiting rooms of our clinics and EDs, surprisingly few healthcare providers are proficient in the diagnosis and treatment of headache, and many have a distinct aversion to dealing with headache patients. Your initial visit to the doctor will be far more productive if you arrive for that visit adequately prepared.
Nonpharmacologic Treatment of Migraine
That the mind influences disease prevention and healing is inarguable, and for those skeptics who continue to resist this association there exists abundant “hard science” in its support. If one’s emotional state can influence the ability of individual white blood cells to combat infection, it requires no great leap of faith to perceive that chronic headache and psychological health inextricably are wedded. In this chapter, we will discuss common migraine triggers, the utility of migraine diets, other lifestyle modifications as therapy for migraine, and the use of various other “alternative” therapies for migraine suppression. In addition, we will discuss disorders that are comorbid with migraine, disorders whose existence may influence the clinical expression of migraine and whose successful treatment may improve that expression.
Treatment of Migraine
For the past two years our increasing knowledge of migraine’s biogenesis has been paralleled by an explosion of new therapies unprecedented in their biologic selectivity and clinical effectiveness. While these medications provide us with a potent arsenal of weaponry for combating migraine, all possess at least some imperfections, and their inappropriate use may make a bad situation worse. In this chapter, we will discuss the issues of acute migraine treatment, prevention of migraine attacks and suppression of chronic migraine, emphasizing the use of medications.
Syndromes: When Is a Headache “Just a Headache?”
THE PRIMARY HEADACHE SYNDROMES
The primary headache disorders account for the vast majority of the episodic and chronic head pain that is so pervasive in our society. Unlike the secondary headaches described in the last chapter, these primary headaches do not point towards the presence of serious, underlying disease. Even so, the financial, physical and emotional cost imposed by these disorders is staggering, and it is no exaggeration to state that migraine in particular has been and remains a chronic public health care emergency. In this chapter, we will begin our effort to provide the reader with the education and tools he or she requires to cope more effectively with migraine, the intimate enemy.